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  • Writer's pictureBrenden OSullivan

Step-by-Step Guide on How to Write a Will in the UK

Understanding the Basics of Writing a Will

Determining the Value of Your Estate

Before you can effectively plan your will, it's crucial to determine the overall value of your estate. This includes tallying up all your assets, such as property, savings, investments, and personal belongings, and then subtracting any outstanding debts. The resulting figure is what will be considered for distribution to your beneficiaries.

To start, create a comprehensive list of your assets and liabilities:

  • Assets may include:

  • Property (real estate)

  • Bank accounts

  • Stocks and shares

  • Life insurance policies

  • Personal possessions

  • Liabilities might consist of:

  • Mortgages

  • Loans

  • Credit card debts

  • Other outstanding bills

Once you have a clear picture of your estate's worth, you can make informed decisions about how to allocate your assets and who should benefit from them. It's advisable to keep this valuation updated, as the value of assets can change over time.

Choosing Executors and Trustees

Selecting the right executors and trustees is a critical step in creating a will in the UK. These individuals will be responsible for managing your estate and ensuring that your final wishes are honoured. Executors are tasked with the administration of your estate, including paying off debts and distributing assets to beneficiaries. Trustees, on the other hand, handle any trusts you may set up, overseeing the assets and ensuring they are used according to your wishes.

Consider the following when choosing your executors and trustees:

  • Their financial acumen and organisational skills

  • The complexity of your estate and whether it includes overseas assets or trusts

  • Their willingness and ability to serve in this capacity

  • The potential need for them to work with financial advisors or legal professionals

Remember, you can also appoint professional executors or trustees, such as solicitors or accountants, if you believe this is the best course for your estate.

Identifying Beneficiaries and Their Inheritance

When it comes to writing your will, one of the most crucial steps is identifying your beneficiaries and determining their inheritance. These are the individuals or entities that will receive parts of your estate according to your wishes. It's essential to be clear and specific to avoid any potential disputes or confusion after your passing.

Here's a simple guide to help you outline your beneficiaries and their inheritance:

  • List all potential beneficiaries by name and relationship to you.

  • Specify the inheritance for each beneficiary, whether it's a specific item, a cash amount, or a percentage of your estate.

  • Consider alternate beneficiaries in case your primary choices are unable to inherit.

  • If you're leaving property, decide on the form of ownership, such as 'Joint Tenants' or 'Tenants in Common', which will dictate how the property is divided or passed on.

Remember, the clearer your instructions, the easier it will be for your executors to carry out your wishes. It's also advisable to review and update your list of beneficiaries and their inheritance periodically, especially after significant life events such as marriages, divorces, births, or deaths within the family.

Addressing Specific Circumstances in Your Will

Dealing with Overseas Property and Inheritance Tax

When you inherit overseas property, it becomes part of the deceased's estate and may be subject to UK inheritance tax. Understanding the tax implications in both the UK and the foreign country is crucial. The UK has double taxation agreements with many countries, potentially allowing for tax relief on any double payments.

Here are some steps to consider when dealing with inherited overseas property:

  • Ascertain the total value of the estate, including the overseas property.

  • Check for any double taxation treaties between the UK and the country where the property is located.

  • Consult with a solicitor or tax advisor to understand the specific tax obligations in both jurisdictions.

  • Determine if any capital gains tax is applicable, especially if you plan to sell the property.

Remember, the standard inheritance tax rate in the UK is 40%, and it's essential to include all assets, such as property, investments, and bank accounts, when calculating the total estate value.

Inheriting Property in a Trust

When you inherit property held in a trust, you become the beneficiary, with the trustee acting as the legal owner. The trustee is responsible for managing the property according to the terms set out in the will of the deceased. This arrangement ensures that the property is handled appropriately if you're not ready or able to manage it yourself.

Inheriting a share of a house with others means you collectively decide on the property's future. It's important to understand the type of joint ownership:

  • Joint Tenants: Equal rights to the whole property.

  • Tenants in Common: Individual shares of the property, which can be unequal.

If the property is abroad, the situation can be more complex due to potential foreign taxes and UK inheritance tax implications. The UK's double taxation treaties may offer some relief, but it's crucial to be aware of the deadlines for tax payments to avoid penalties.

What to Do if There's No Will

When someone dies without a will, known as 'dying intestate', the situation can seem daunting. The law dictates who inherits what, which may not align with the deceased's wishes or your expectations. If you find yourself in this position, the first step is to establish your legal relationship with the estate.

Here's what you need to do:

  1. Determine if the deceased left a will and if you are named within it.

  2. If there is no will, check if you're eligible to apply for a grant of administration.

  3. Understand that without a will, the estate will be distributed according to the rules of intestacy.

  4. Consider seeking legal advice to navigate the complexities of intestacy and protect your interests.

The Legal Process of Probate and Inheritance

The Role of Executors During Probate

As an executor, you have a pivotal role in the administration of the estate of the deceased. Your primary duty is to ensure that the wishes of the testator are honoured by accurately distributing the assets as per the will. The probate process involves several key steps:

  • Valuation of the estate: You must ascertain the total value of the deceased's assets and liabilities.

  • Applying for probate: This is a legal confirmation of your authority to deal with the estate.

  • Settling debts: Before distribution, you must pay off any outstanding debts and taxes.

  • Distribution of assets: Finally, you distribute the remaining assets to the beneficiaries.

The process can be complex and time-consuming, often taking up to a year to complete. During this period, the property inherited is not yet yours to manage, but understanding your responsibilities early on can help streamline the process.

Managing Inherited Property with a Mortgage

When you inherit a property with a mortgage, it's crucial to understand your responsibilities. You automatically become responsible for the mortgage repayments once the property is legally yours, post-probate. Initially, you may benefit from a grace period provided by the lender, allowing you time to organise the estate.

Your options typically include selling the property to clear the mortgage or taking out a new mortgage in your name. If the deceased had life insurance, it might cover the outstanding mortgage; otherwise, you'll need to address the repayments yourself. Here's what you can consider:

  • Sell the property and use the sale proceeds to pay off the mortgage.

  • Take out a new mortgage on the property in your name.

Remember, if you inherit a share of a house with others, you'll need to agree on how to manage or divide the property. Joint ownership comes in two forms: Joint Tenants and Tenants in Common, each with different implications for mortgage responsibility and inheritance.

Timeframes and Responsibilities After Inheriting a House

Upon inheriting a house, you're faced with important decisions and responsibilities. Probate must be completed before the property legally becomes yours, which can take several months. During this period, it's crucial to understand the mortgage situation and communicate with the lender, as they may offer a grace period for repayments.

  • If the property is mortgaged, you'll need to decide whether to sell the house to clear the debt or take on the mortgage yourself.

  • In the case of joint inheritance, you and the other beneficiaries must agree on how to proceed with the property.

Finally, consider the practicalities of maintaining the property during the probate process, such as securing the premises and ensuring all bills are paid. This proactive approach will help you manage the property effectively until you can make more permanent decisions.

Protecting Your Assets for Future Generations

Setting Up Trusts in the UK

When considering how to safeguard your assets for future generations, setting up a trust can be a prudent choice. A trust is a legal arrangement where you, as the 'settlor', transfer the legal ownership of assets to one or more 'trustees', who then manage these assets for the benefit of your chosen 'beneficiaries'.

To establish a trust, you'll need to decide on the type of trust that best suits your needs. There are several types, including:

  • Discretionary trusts, where trustees have full discretion on how to use the trust income and capital.

  • Interest in possession trusts, which grant beneficiaries the right to trust income as it arises.

  • Bare trusts, where the assets are held in the trustee's name but the beneficiary is entitled to all capital and income.

Once you've selected the type of trust, you must register your trust with HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC), which involves setting up a Government Gateway account specifically for the trust. This is a separate process from managing your personal tax affairs.

Mitigating Inheritance Tax on Property Portfolios

Inheritance Tax (IHT) can significantly impact the value of the property you leave behind for your loved ones. Understanding the thresholds and exemptions is crucial to mitigate potential IHT liabilities. For instance, the standard IHT rate is 40%, but if you leave your home to your children or grandchildren, the tax-free threshold may increase to 450,000, provided your estate's total value is under 2 million.

Here are some strategies to consider:

  • Make use of the 'Residence Nil Rate Band' (RNRB) if you're passing your property to direct descendants.

  • Gift assets during your lifetime to reduce the size of your estate.

  • Set up a trust to manage and protect assets.

Each approach has its nuances and should be tailored to your individual circumstances. Consulting with a financial adviser can provide clarity on the best steps to take for your situation.

The Importance of Life Insurance in Estate Planning

When considering the future of your estate, life insurance plays a pivotal role in safeguarding your assets for your loved ones. It can provide the necessary funds to settle any outstanding debts, including mortgages, ensuring that your beneficiaries are not burdened financially upon your passing.

Understanding the different ways life insurance can be utilised is crucial:

  • It can be designated to cover specific debts, such as an outstanding mortgage on an inherited property.

  • The policy can be placed in trust to avoid being counted as part of your legal estate, potentially reducing inheritance tax liabilities.

  • Life insurance payouts can provide immediate financial support to your beneficiaries, bypassing the often lengthy probate process.

Remember, the right life insurance policy can significantly ease the transition for your family, preserving the value of your estate and providing for their future.

Seeking Professional Advice and Support

When to Consult a Solicitor

Drafting a will is a significant step in managing your estate, and expert legal advice is crucial for ensuring its validity. A solicitor can guide you through complex legal jargon and help you avoid common pitfalls that could lead to challenges against your will. It's advisable to seek a solicitor's help in the following situations:

  • You own property or have assets overseas.

  • Your estate's value exceeds the Inheritance Tax threshold.

  • You want to set up a trust as part of your estate planning.

  • There are complicated family situations, such as previous marriages or estranged children.

Remember, the cost of a solicitor can vary depending on the complexity of your will and estate. It's a worthwhile investment to ensure your wishes are clearly understood and legally binding.

Financial Advising for Inherited Estates

Inheriting an estate can be a complex affair, especially when it comes to financial implications. Understanding the tax obligations and making informed decisions about the estate is crucial. For instance, there's no inheritance tax if the estate is left to a spouse, civil partner, charity, or a community amateur sports club. Additionally, estates valued under

can be exempt from inheritance tax.

When you inherit property, it's essential to establish your legal relationship with it. Are you a beneficiary or an executor? This determines your rights and responsibilities. If there's no will, the next of kin may need to apply for a 'grant of administration'.

Here are your options if you inherit a property with a mortgage:

  • Sell the property and use the funds to pay off the mortgage.

  • Take out a new mortgage in your name.

Joint ownership of inherited property requires all parties to agree on the division of the estate. There are two types of joint ownership: Joint Tenants and Tenants in Common, each with different implications for inheritance.

Probate can take up to a year, giving you time to decide on the best course of action for the inherited property. Remember, inheritance tax is paid from the deceased's estate, but as a beneficiary, you can opt to use personal funds to cover these costs.

Finding the Right Mortgage Broker

When you inherit a property, securing the right mortgage broker can be as crucial as the property itself. A good broker can help you navigate the complex mortgage landscape, ensuring you find a deal that suits your new financial circumstances.

  • Look for brokers with a strong track record in dealing with inherited properties.

  • Consider their access to a wide range of lenders.

  • Assess their understanding of inheritance tax implications on property.

With over 27,000 mortgage brokers and financial advisers established since 2009, finding one that aligns with your needs is vital. Use available resources like mortgage calculators and updates on the latest news and insights to inform your decision. And don't hesitate to start the search; getting the right advice early can make a significant difference in managing your inherited estate effectively.

Navigating the complexities of estate planning can be daunting, but you don't have to do it alone. At East Sussex Wills, we offer expert will writing and lasting power of attorney services tailored to your unique needs. Our team is committed to providing you with the highest level of confidentiality and professionalism. Don't hesitate to reach out for a free quotation or to schedule a convenient appointment. Visit our website for more information and to take the first step towards peace of mind in your estate planning journey.


Writing a will is a crucial step in ensuring your assets are distributed according to your wishes after you pass away. This guide has walked you through the process step-by-step, from understanding the legal requirements in the UK to considering the implications of inherited properties, both domestic and abroad. Remember, dealing with inheritance tax and the potential complexities of trusts can be challenging, so seeking professional advice is always recommended. Whether you're setting up a trust, going through probate, or managing an inherited property with a mortgage, the right guidance can help you navigate these processes with confidence. We hope this guide has provided you with a clear understanding of how to write a will in the UK and the subsequent steps for managing your estate. For further information on related topics, such as protecting your property portfolio from inheritance tax or dealing with partial intestacy, be sure to explore our additional resources.

Frequently Asked Questions

How is UK inheritance tax calculated on overseas property?

Overseas property, along with other foreign assets such as bank accounts and investments, is added to the estate's value for UK inheritance tax purposes. The UK may tax these assets at the standard inheritance tax rate of 40%, but double taxation treaties can allow for relief from taxation in both the UK and the country where the property is located.

What happens after probate is completed for an inherited property?

Once probate is completed, the property's ownership is transferred to the beneficiary, who can then register the ownership with the Land Registry. While registration is not mandatory unless the property is sold or mortgaged, it provides clear proof of ownership and simplifies future property dealings.

What should you do if you inherit a property with a mortgage?

If you inherit a property with a mortgage, you're responsible for the mortgage repayments. You can use any life insurance policy of the deceased to cover the outstanding mortgage, or you have two options after probate: either sell the property to clear the mortgage or take over the mortgage payments yourself.

What is the role of a trustee if you inherit a property in a trust?

If you inherit property in a trust, you are the beneficiary and the trustee is the legal owner responsible for managing the property according to the terms set out in the deceased's will. Trustees are legally obliged to handle the property in the best interests of the beneficiaries.

How long does the probate process take when inheriting a property?

The probate process, which involves evaluating assets, settling debts, and distributing the estate, can take up to a year to complete. This gives beneficiaries time to make decisions regarding the inherited property.

What happens if there is no will when someone dies?

If someone dies without a will, known as 'dying intestate', the next of kin can apply for a 'grant of administration'. This legal document allows them to manage and distribute the deceased's estate according to the rules of intestacy.



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