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  • Writer's pictureBrenden OSullivan

Steps to Making Your Will: What You Need to Know

1. Estate Administration

When it comes to estate administration, it's crucial to appoint individuals you trust to act as your Executors. These are the people who will be responsible for valuing your estate, settling any Inheritance Tax, and ensuring that your chosen beneficiaries receive their rightful inheritance. It's a role that requires both integrity and diligence.

Here are some key steps to consider in estate administration:

  • List all components of your estate, including property, savings, and personal items.

  • Decide how to distribute your estate among your beneficiaries.

  • Consider what should happen if a beneficiary predeceases you.

  • Determine who will look after any minor children.

  • Select an executor to carry out the instructions in your will.

Remember, if you do not have a will in place, the Rules of Intestacy will dictate who inherits your assets, which may not align with your wishes.

2. Beneficiaries

When drafting your Will, it's crucial to decide who you want to benefit from your estate. These individuals or entities are known as beneficiaries. You may wish to leave specific assets, sums of money, or even charitable donations to them. Consider the following points:

  • The specific individuals or charities you wish to include as beneficiaries.

  • The allocation of assets or money to each beneficiary.

  • Provisions for any changes, such as if a beneficiary predeceases you.

Remember, your Will can also be a tool to manage potential Inheritance Tax liabilities and to protect assets from care fees. It's advisable to seek professional advice to ensure your wishes are fulfilled in the most tax-efficient and secure manner.

3. Financial Provisions for Beneficiaries

When you're making your will, it's crucial to consider the financial provisions for your beneficiaries. This is not just about who gets what, but also how and when they receive it. For instance, you might want to create trusts to protect young or vulnerable beneficiaries, ensuring they are cared for in the long term.

  • Gift business assets and agricultural land and property to specific individuals.

  • Use your will to balance any unequal lifetime gifts by leaving additional assets to other beneficiaries.

  • Plan for your child's finances, including expenses for upbringing in the event of your death.

Your will can also address other financial aspects, such as equal treatment of beneficiaries, especially if you've supported some more than others during your lifetime. A solicitor can guide you through the options, helping you to structure your will in a way that reflects your wishes accurately and benefits your loved ones as intended.

4. Guardianship of Minor Children

When considering the future of your minor children, appointing a guardian in your will is a decision of paramount importance. You can appoint anyone you wish to be a guardian for your child, as long as they are over the age of 18. This is commonly a family member or a close friend. Without a will, the courts may appoint guardians for your children, and they might not be the individuals you would have chosen.

Here are some steps to consider when appointing a guardian:

  • Discuss the decision with your partner or co-parent to reach an agreement on the preferred guardian.

  • Consider the values and parenting style of the potential guardian to ensure they align with your own.

  • Talk to the person you wish to appoint to confirm their willingness to act as guardian.

  • Consult with a solicitor to understand the legal implications and to draught the necessary documentation.

Remember, a solicitor can also assist you in drafting a letter of wishes, which can outline your preferences for your children's upbringing in more detail.

5. Age of Inheritance

Determining the age at which your beneficiaries will inherit is a crucial aspect of creating your will. You have the flexibility to set a specific age for when the inheritance will be received, which can protect young beneficiaries from potentially mismanaging their inheritance at an immature age.

  • If you wish to provide for minors, consider setting an age that you believe they will be mature enough to handle their inheritance responsibly.

  • You may also establish a trust to manage the assets until the beneficiary reaches the predetermined age.

Remember, without specifying an age, the default legal age of inheritance is 18. However, you can choose to set this higher if you feel it's in the best interest of your beneficiaries. It's also possible to release the inheritance in stages, providing portions at different ages or life milestones.

6. Trusts for Vulnerable Dependents

When planning for the future, it's crucial to consider the needs of dependents who may be vulnerable due to age, disability, or other circumstances. Trusts are an effective way to provide for their long-term care and financial stability. By setting up a trust, you can ensure that your assets are managed responsibly and used for the benefit of these individuals.

Trusts can be tailored to suit the unique needs of your beneficiaries. For example, a discretionary trust gives you the flexibility to specify how and when the assets are distributed, which can be especially beneficial for vulnerable dependents. Here are some key considerations:

  • Appoint Executors and Trustees you trust to manage the estate and trusts.

  • Ensure assets are distributed according to your wishes, avoiding the Rules of Intestacy.

  • Protect young or vulnerable beneficiaries with appropriate trusts.

Remember to draught a will with two witnesses and update it regularly to reflect any changes in your circumstances or those of your dependents. Trusts offer not only asset protection but also a structured approach to inheritance planning, allowing you to maintain control and provide for your loved ones even after you're gone.

7. Sentimental Possessions and Heirlooms

When it comes to sentimental possessions and heirlooms, these items often carry more emotional value than monetary worth. It's crucial to consider who will cherish these items as much as you do. Start by making a list of such possessions, noting down any specific stories or memories associated with them.

  • Jewellery

  • Family photographs

  • Letters and diaries

  • Medals and awards

  • Artwork

Remember, the distribution of these items can be a sensitive issue. It's advisable to discuss your intentions with your beneficiaries to prevent any potential disagreements. If you're unsure about how to proceed, a [website page provides guidance](#) on will writing, power of attorney, and estate planning, which can help you navigate these decisions with greater confidence.

8. Charitable Bequests

Including a charitable bequest in your will is a noble way to support causes close to your heart even after you're gone. You can ensure your legacy lives on by leaving a portion of your estate to a charity of your choice. This can be done in several ways:

  • A specific sum of money, known as a 'pecuniary gift'.

  • A particular item or asset, such as property or shares.

  • A 'residuary gift', where a charity receives a percentage or the entirety of your estate after other legacies are settled.

It's important to consider how you want to structure these gifts to reflect your wishes accurately. For instance, you might want to ensure that all your beneficiaries are treated equally or create trusts to protect young or vulnerable beneficiaries. Charitable bequests can also be used to moderate Inheritance Tax, potentially preserve assets from care fees, or provide for a surviving partner while ensuring your family ultimately inherits your property.

9. Unmarried and Cohabiting Partner Inheritance

When you're living with a partner to whom you're not married, it's crucial to understand that the law does not automatically recognise them as beneficiaries of your estate. Without a will, your partner may not inherit anything, and this could leave them in a precarious financial position. To ensure your partner is provided for, consider the following steps:

  • Establish a Life Interest Trust to allow your partner to benefit from your estate while preserving the underlying assets for other beneficiaries.

  • Use a Discretionary Trust to address the diverse needs of your beneficiaries, which can include your partner.

  • Regularly update your will to reflect any changes in your relationship or financial situation.

Remember, inheritance tax planning and the use of trusts can be complex, so it's advisable to seek professional advice to ensure your estate is structured efficiently and your partner's future is secure.

10. Will Review Periods

Life is unpredictable, and circumstances can change in the blink of an eye. It's essential to review your will periodically to ensure it reflects your current wishes and circumstances. A good rule of thumb is to review your will every three to five years or after any significant life event.

Here are some key moments when you should consider reviewing your will:

  • Marriage or entering into a civil partnership

  • Divorce or dissolution of a civil partnership

  • Birth or adoption of a child

  • Death of a named executor or beneficiary

  • Significant changes to your assets or financial situation

Remember, keeping your will up-to-date is crucial for ensuring that your estate is distributed according to your current wishes and can prevent potential disputes among your loved ones.

11. Personal Property Distribution

When it comes to distributing your personal property, it's crucial to be clear and specific in your will to prevent any misunderstandings or disputes among your beneficiaries. Start by making a comprehensive list of your possessions, including property, savings, shares, life policies, antiques, and jewellery. Consider how you want these items to be shared and what should happen if a beneficiary predeceases you.

Remember to also consider the creation of trusts to protect young or vulnerable beneficiaries, which can be a vital tool in safeguarding their future. Here's a simple list to help you start the process:

  • List all your assets, including business and agricultural properties.

  • Decide on the distribution of your estate among beneficiaries.

  • Plan for substitute beneficiaries in case the original ones cannot inherit.

  • Choose guardians for minor children.

  • Appoint executors to carry out your will.

Creating a valid will in the UK provides peace of mind by protecting assets and wishes. Follow a step-by-step process: identify assets, choose executors/guardians, seek legal advice, and draught the will.

12. Legal Rules Without a Will

When you pass away without a will, you leave behind what is known as intestacy. This situation means that the distribution of your estate is no longer in your hands but is instead governed by the law of intestacy. Your assets, including property and belongings, are 'frozen' until the legal process is resolved, which can be a lengthy and stressful period for your loved ones.

The Rules of Intestacy are quite rigid and can lead to outcomes that you might not have intended. For instance, if you are married with children, your spouse may not inherit your entire estate. Unmarried partners are particularly vulnerable as they are not recognised under these rules and will not inherit anything without a will specifying your wishes. It's crucial to understand these implications to ensure that your estate is passed on according to your desires.

  • Appoint guardians for your children under 18.

  • Minimise the amount of tax paid after death.

  • Ensure that unmarried partners and those not in a civil partnership can inherit.

  • Dictate who will administer your estate and manage any trust assets.

13. Spousal Inheritance Regulations

Understanding the spousal inheritance regulations is crucial when drafting your will. In the UK, if you pass away without a will, the rules of intestacy dictate how your estate is distributed. Your spouse or civil partner is often the primary beneficiary, but the specifics can vary based on whether you have children, the size of your estate, and other factors.

  • Ensure your spouse or civil partner has the right to live in your property while protecting your family's inheritance rights.

  • Moderate potential Inheritance Tax liabilities.

  • Protect assets from being used for care fees after one partner's death.

If you have no surviving spouse, civil partner, or valid will, your children or other relatives may inherit your entire estate. This highlights the importance of having a will to ensure your wishes are followed. Remember, without a will, your partner may face financial difficulties as assets could be frozen during the estate administration process.

14. Unmarried Partner Rights

If you're in an unmarried partnership, it's crucial to understand that without a Will, your partner may not inherit anything from your estate. The law does not automatically recognise cohabiting partners as beneficiaries, which can lead to unintended consequences and financial distress for the surviving partner.

Here are some reasons why a Will is essential for unmarried partners:

  • To prevent the law and complete strangers from deciding the distribution of your assets.

  • To avoid your partner facing frozen assets and financial difficulties during an already challenging time.

  • To potentially moderate Inheritance Tax and preserve assets from care fees.

  • To ensure your partner has the right to continue living in your property, while still protecting your family's inheritance rights.

15. Will Drafting Assistance

When it comes to drafting your will, seeking professional assistance can be invaluable. Solicitors specialising in wills and probate can provide expert guidance to ensure your wishes are clearly articulated and legally sound. They can help you navigate complex issues such as Inheritance Tax planning and setting up trusts.

Here are some options to consider for will drafting assistance:

  • Free or low-cost wills from solicitors during special promotions

  • Charity-based schemes offering discounted services

  • Online will-writing platforms for straightforward estates

Remember, a well-drafted will can prevent future disputes and ensure your assets are distributed according to your wishes. Don't hesitate to reach out to a professional for help.

16. Estate Inventory

Creating a comprehensive estate inventory is a crucial step in the will-making process. It ensures that your executors have a clear understanding of what needs to be managed and distributed according to your wishes. Start by listing all your assets, including property, savings, shares, life policies, antiques, jewellery, and pensions.

Remember, the role of the executor is to value the estate, pay any Inheritance Tax, and ensure the right inheritance is passed on. Here's a simple checklist to help your executor begin the estate inventory process:

  • Confirm all property and assets

  • Assess savings and investments

  • Review life insurance policies

  • Evaluate antiques and jewellery

  • Check pension funds and other financial instruments

By taking these steps, you can appoint loved ones to administer your estate or opt for professional services if preferred. This proactive approach can help avoid probate delays and ensure your final wishes are honoured.

17. Property and Assets

When drafting your will, it's crucial to list all your assets to ensure they are distributed according to your wishes. This includes not only physical property such as your home and vehicles but also financial assets like savings, pensions, and insurance policies.

Remember to consider all forms of property, including business assets and agricultural land. For digital assets, include instructions for access and management posthumously. It's advisable to keep an updated inventory of your assets, which can be categorised as follows:

  • Physical property (e.g., real estate, cars, family heirlooms)

  • Financial assets (e.g., bank accounts, shares, insurance policies)

  • Digital assets (e.g., social media, email, online banking)

By clearly outlining your assets, you can help prevent disputes and ensure that your estate is administered smoothly.

18. Savings and Investments

When it comes to administering your estate, it's crucial to consider how your savings and investments will be handled after your passing. These assets form a significant part of your estate and can have implications for inheritance tax and the financial well-being of your beneficiaries.

Your will can specify particular wishes for your savings and investments, such as dividing shares among beneficiaries or donating a portion to charity. Remember, certain documents will generally be required by financial institutions to process death claims or encashments.

Consider the potential benefits of creating trusts, especially if you have young or vulnerable beneficiaries. Trusts can be a strategic way to manage and protect assets within your estate. Here's a quick checklist for your savings and investments:

  • List all financial assets and their values

  • Decide on the distribution of these assets

  • Identify documents needed by banks for claims

  • Explore the use of trusts for asset protection

19. Life Insurance Policies

When planning your estate, consider the role of life insurance policies. These can provide significant financial support to your beneficiaries and may be used to cover debts, funeral costs, or as a form of inheritance. It's important to keep your policy details up to date and ensure that your beneficiaries are aware of the policies in place.

Here are some key points to remember:

  • Review your life insurance policies regularly.

  • Ensure your beneficiaries are correctly named.

  • Consider placing your life insurance in a trust to potentially avoid probate and taxes.

Remember, life insurance policies are part of your broader estate and should be integrated with your other plans. If you're unsure about how to manage these policies, seeking professional advice can be invaluable.

20. Antiques and Jewellery

When it comes to antiques and jewellery, these items often carry both significant monetary and sentimental value. It's crucial to consider how you wish to distribute such possessions in your will.

  • List each item and its intended recipient clearly to avoid any confusion or disputes among your beneficiaries.

  • If certain pieces have been appraised, include this information to assist in the equitable division of your estate.

  • For items of considerable worth, you might want to consult with an expert to ensure proper valuation.

Ensure that your share of any jointly owned assets is accounted for in your will. This includes items you may own with a spouse or partner. If you're unsure about how to handle these details, seeking professional advice can be invaluable.

21. Pension Funds

When considering your will, it's crucial to think about how your pension funds will be handled. Pension funds can be a significant part of your estate and may have implications for Inheritance Tax. It's important to understand the type of pension you have and the rules that apply to its inheritance.

  • Occupational pensions often include a 'death in service' benefit, which may pay out a lump sum or provide an income to your dependents.

  • Personal pensions can usually be passed on to your beneficiaries, but the tax treatment depends on your age at death and the pension scheme rules.

Remember, if you die before the age of 75, your pension can often be passed on tax-free. However, if you're older than 75, your beneficiaries might have to pay tax on the pension. It's advisable to consult with a financial advisor or a solicitor specialising in estate planning to make the most appropriate arrangements for your pension funds.

22. Beneficiary Substitutions

When drafting your will, it's crucial to consider not only who your primary beneficiaries will be, but also who should inherit in the event that your primary beneficiaries cannot. Beneficiary substitutions ensure that your estate is distributed according to your wishes, even if circumstances change.

  • Appoint alternative beneficiaries in case the primary ones predecease you.

  • Specify conditions under which substitutions will take effect.

  • Consider the equal treatment of beneficiaries, especially if lifetime gifts have been made.

Remember, the clarity of your instructions can prevent disputes and ensure that your assets are allocated as intended. If you're unsure about how to manage beneficiary substitutions, seeking professional advice can help you make informed decisions.

23. Guardianship Decisions

When considering the future of your children, appointing a guardian in your Will is a decision of paramount importance. This person will be responsible for your children's care if you are no longer able to do so. It's essential to record your wishes in your Will and to think about writing a letter of wishes, which can provide guidance on education and any monetary legacy for your children.

  • Discuss with potential guardians to ensure they are willing and able to take on the role.

  • Consider the values and parenting style of the potential guardian to ensure they align with your own.

  • Reflect on the guardian's location and circumstances, as these will impact your child's upbringing.

Remember, if both parents pass away without a Will, local authorities may end up making the decision, potentially choosing someone outside of your preferred circle. Therefore, it is crucial to make these decisions while you can and seek legal advice to ensure your wishes are clearly understood and legally documented.

24. Executor Appointments

Choosing the right executor for your will is a pivotal decision in estate planning. Executors are tasked with the crucial role of carrying out your final wishes and managing the estate's administration. It's common to appoint more than one executor to ensure continuity in case one is unable to fulfil their duties. Typically, up to four executors can be appointed.

When selecting your executors, consider appointing individuals who are both trustworthy and capable of handling the responsibilities that come with the role. Friends, family members, solicitors, or accountants are often chosen for their reliability and expertise. Remember, the importance of wills in estate planning cannot be overstated; they allow you to choose executors, trustees for minors, and specify your funeral wishes.

For those who prefer not to burden loved ones with the task, professional services like East Sussex Wills are available to act as executors, guaranteeing that your final wishes are honoured with dedication and respect.

25. Funeral Wishes and more

When it comes to your final farewell, expressing your funeral wishes in your will is a profound gesture of consideration for your loved ones. It's not just about the type of service or the music played; it's about easing the burden on those you leave behind by providing clear instructions.

Additionally, your will can address other posthumous matters:

  • Appointing guardians for young children in the event of both parents' passing.

  • Specifying alternate beneficiaries should your primary beneficiary predecease you.

  • Including or excluding individuals, charities, or dependents from your estate.

Remember, the clarity you provide in your will can prevent disputes and ensure your wishes are respected, making a difficult time a little easier for your family.

As you consider the legacy you wish to leave behind, it's essential to articulate your funeral wishes and other important estate planning details. At East Sussex Wills, we provide expert guidance to ensure your final wishes are honoured and your loved ones are cared for. Our comprehensive estate planning services include will writing, lasting power of attorney, and secure document storage. To discuss your specific needs and to ensure your peace of mind, visit our website and schedule a consultation with our experienced team.


In conclusion, drafting a Will is a fundamental step in ensuring your wishes are honoured after your passing. It provides clarity and peace of mind, not just for you, but also for your loved ones, who will be guided by your intentions during a difficult time. This article has walked you through the essential considerations, from appointing executors and guardians to making specific bequests and setting up trusts. Remember, the absence of a Will can lead to unintended consequences under the law, potentially against your desires. Therefore, it is prudent to seek professional advice to create a Will that accurately reflects your wishes and provides for those you care about. Regularly reviewing and updating your Will in light of life's changes is equally important to ensure that it remains relevant and effective. Making a Will is not just a legal formality; it is a compassionate act that can significantly ease the burden on your family and friends, ensuring that your legacy is preserved as you intend.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why is it important to make a Will?

It is important to make a Will because if you die without one, legal rules dictate how your assets will be divided, which might not align with your wishes. This is especially crucial if you're unmarried or cohabiting, as your partner may not inherit anything without a Will.

What key points should I consider when creating a Will?

When creating a Will, consider who will administer your estate, who will benefit from it, financial provisions for beneficiaries, guardianship of minor children, the age at which beneficiaries will inherit, and specific instructions for sentimental possessions, heirlooms, and charitable bequests.

How often should I review my Will?

You should review your Will every 3 to 5 years or after life-changing events such as marriage, childbirth, divorce, retirement, or bereavement to ensure it reflects your current wishes and circumstances.

Can a solicitor assist me in making a Will?

Yes, a solicitor can guide you through the significant decisions when making a Will, ensuring it is tailored to your personal and financial circumstances and that it provides for the important people in your life.

What happens if I die without a Will?

If you die without a Will, your assets will be distributed according to legal rules, which may not align with your personal wishes. This can cause complications and unintended consequences for your loved ones.

What should I list in my estate when drafting a Will?

When drafting a Will, list your property, savings, shares, life policies, antiques, jewellery, and pensions. Decide how to share your estate among beneficiaries, choose guardians for children, appoint executors, and specify any other wishes, such as funeral arrangements.



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