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  • Writer's pictureBrenden OSullivan

The Essential Guide to Understanding Power of Attorney in the UK

Deciphering the Types of Lasting Power of Attorney

Understanding Health and Welfare LPA

When considering a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) for health and welfare, you're preparing for a time when you might not be able to make decisions about your own care. This type of LPA becomes active only when you lack the mental capacity to make informed decisions yourself. It's a safeguard, ensuring that the person you trust can make choices about your daily routine, medical care, and even life-sustaining treatment on your behalf.

To set up a health and welfare LPA, you must register it with the Office of the Public Guardian (OPG). This process ensures that your LPA is ready to be used if the need arises. Remember, it's not just about having the LPA in place; it's about the peace of mind that comes with knowing your future is in trusted hands. Here's a quick checklist to get you started:

  • Choose someone you trust as your attorney.

  • Decide on the extent of the powers you wish to grant.

  • Complete the LPA form with all the necessary details.

  • Register your LPA with the OPG to make it legally binding.

Understanding the nuances of a health and welfare LPA is crucial. It's not affected by financial changes such as bankruptcy, unlike a property and financial affairs LPA. Seeking legal advice is advisable to navigate the complexities and ensure your autonomy and wishes are protected.

Navigating Property and Financial Affairs LPA

When considering a Property and Financial Affairs Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA), you're preparing for a time when you might need someone to manage your financial matters. This type of LPA allows your chosen attorney to handle a wide range of financial activities on your behalf, such as:

  • Managing bank and building society accounts

  • Paying bills and collecting benefits

  • Selling your home, if necessary

It's important to note that you can specify whether the LPA can be used immediately after registration or only if you lose mental capacity. This decision is crucial and should reflect your personal preferences and circumstances.

If you own a business, you might consider a separate LPA for your business affairs, allowing you to appoint different individuals to oversee these specific decisions. Remember, the rules differ if you are bankrupt or have a Debt Relief Order (DRO); in such cases, your attorney's powers will be limited, and seeking legal advice is recommended.

The Distinctions Between Ordinary and Lasting Powers of Attorney

When planning for the future, it's crucial to understand the differences between Ordinary Power of Attorney (OPA) and Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA). An OPA is typically used for short-term arrangements, whereas an LPA is designed to be a long-term solution for when you may lose mental capacity.

  • Ordinary Power of Attorney (OPA):

  • Effective immediately.

  • Ends if you lose mental capacity.

  • Suitable for temporary situations.

  • Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA):

  • Must be registered with the Office of the Public Guardian.

  • Remains valid if you lose mental capacity.

  • Can be Health and Welfare or Property and Financial Affairs.

Remember, an OPA may suffice for situations where you need someone to act on your behalf for a limited time or for specific transactions. However, for enduring peace of mind, an LPA is the recommended route, as it remains in effect even if you can no longer express your wishes due to a loss of mental capacity.

The Process of Establishing a Lasting Power of Attorney

Step-by-Step Guide to Creating an LPA

Embarking on the journey to create a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) is a proactive step to ensure your wishes are respected should you become unable to make decisions for yourself. The process can be completed online, offering a convenient way to secure your future. Here's a simplified guide to help you navigate the creation of an LPA:

  1. Determine the type of LPA you require, be it for Health and Welfare or Property and Financial Affairs.

  2. Start the application on the Office of the Public Guardian's online service.

  3. Fill in the required sections, including personal details and your chosen attorneys.

  4. Designate a certificate provider who will attest to your understanding and voluntariness in making the LPA.

  5. Specify any preferences and instructions that will guide your attorneys in decision-making.

  6. Review a draught of your LPA to ensure all details are correct and reflect your wishes.

  7. Obtain the necessary signatures from all parties involved.

  8. Submit the completed LPA to the Office of the Public Guardian for registration.

Once your LPA is registered, your attorneys will have the legal authority to act on your behalf, in accordance with the types of decisions you have authorised them to make. It's crucial to choose someone you trust, as they will be responsible for either your health and welfare or property and financial affairs, depending on the LPA type.

Choosing the Right Attorney: Considerations and Criteria

Selecting an attorney for your Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) is a decision that should not be taken lightly. Your attorney should be someone you trust implicitly, who knows you well, and understands your wishes and values. It's common for individuals to appoint a family member or close friend, but you also have the option to appoint a professional, such as a solicitor.

When choosing your attorney, consider the following points:

  • The attorney must be 18 or over.

  • They should not be a professional care worker, unless under exceptional circumstances.

  • Assess whether the attorney has the skills and ability to manage their own affairs, as this is indicative of how they might manage yours.

  • Ensure that the attorney understands your beliefs and preferences to make decisions that align with your interests.

It is also crucial to decide on the structure of how your attorneys will operate:

  • Appoint more than one attorney if you wish to have a broader support network.

  • Determine whether they must make decisions jointly or can act independently.

  • Consider appointing replacement attorneys who can step in if the primary attorney is unable to act.

Finally, think about who will act as your certificate provider and whether anyone should be notified about the LPA. These considerations will help ensure that your LPA is a robust document that truly reflects your intentions and provides peace of mind.

Registering Your LPA with the Office of the Public Guardian

Once you've carefully completed your Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) forms, the final step is to register them with the Office of the Public Guardian (OPG). Registration is a crucial step to ensure that your LPA is legally recognised and can be used when needed. The OPG will check the LPA for legal correctness, look for errors, and provide an opportunity for objections to be raised.

Here's what you need to know about the registration process:

  • Ensure all forms are signed in the correct order.

  • Send the completed forms to the OPG for review.

  • The registration process can take up to 20 weeks if there are no errors or objections.

Remember, an LPA can only be used after it has been registered. If you have the mental capacity, you can register your LPA yourself. However, if you lose capacity before registration, your chosen attorney can complete the process on your behalf. For peace of mind, consider seeking legal advice before signing any legally binding documents.

The Legal Implications and Responsibilities of Being an Attorney

Understanding the Duties of an Attorney

As you consider appointing an attorney under a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA), it's crucial to understand the responsibilities that come with this role. An attorney is legally bound to act in the best interests of the donor, the person who has granted them the power to make decisions on their behalf. This includes making decisions that reflect the donor's known beliefs and preferences, and not the interests of others, such as family members.

The duties of an attorney are guided by the Mental Capacity Act Code of Practise and include the following key points:

  • Understanding the role and responsibilities of an attorney.

  • Agreeing to take on the role and signing the LPA document.

  • Following the principles set out in the Mental Capacity Act, such as assuming the donor has capacity unless proven otherwise.

Remember, an attorney cannot be instructed to do anything unlawful or to prioritise the interests of others over the donor. If you're considering who to appoint, think about their skills and how well they manage their own affairs, especially if they will be handling financial decisions. It's not just about trust; it's about capability and compatibility with the donor's values and needs.

The Legal Limits of an Attorney's Power

As you navigate the responsibilities entrusted to an attorney under a Power of Attorney, it's crucial to understand the legal boundaries within which you must operate. An attorney must always act within the law, and this includes refraining from actions such as euthanasia or assisted suicide, which are illegal. Moreover, your role is to act solely in the best interests of the donor, not considering the wishes of their relatives or partners.

Here are some key limitations you should be aware of:

  • You cannot instruct your attorney to do anything unlawful.

  • Attorneys must focus on the donor's interests, excluding the interests of others, like the donor's spouse or children.

  • Replacement attorneys cannot be restricted to act only under specific conditions.

  • Instructions regarding property and financial affairs should not be mixed with a health and welfare LPA.

  • Changing the donor's will is beyond an attorney's authority.

  • Granting power to appoint another attorney is not permissible.

Remember, the powers you grant are not absolute and come with a duty to respect the donor's autonomy and legal rights. If you're unsure about the extent of your powers, it's prudent to consult a legal professional.

Dealing with Challenges and Disputes as an Attorney

As an attorney under a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA), you may face challenges and disputes, either with co-attorneys or with those concerned about your actions. Understanding how to navigate these situations is crucial to maintaining the integrity of your role and ensuring the donor's wishes are respected.

When disagreements arise, it's important to refer back to the LPA document itself. The donor may have specified how decisions should be made, whether jointly (where all attorneys must agree) or jointly and severally (where attorneys can act independently). If the LPA includes contradictory instructions, such as requiring a majority decision when attorneys are to act jointly, the Office of the Public Guardian cannot register the LPA.

If you're unable to resolve disputes internally, seeking professional legal advice may be necessary. Here are some steps to consider:

  • Review the LPA document for any specific instructions or preferences.

  • Communicate openly with co-attorneys to understand their perspectives.

  • Document all decisions and the rationale behind them.

  • Consult with a legal professional if disputes continue.

Remember, challenging an LPA is a serious step and should be based on genuine and reasonable grounds. It's not just a matter of personal differences but must be rooted in the best interests of the donor.

Planning Ahead: The Importance of a Lasting Power of Attorney

Why Setting Up an LPA is Crucial for Future Planning

When considering your future, the importance of a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) cannot be overstated. An LPA ensures that, should you lose the capacity to make decisions, someone you trust is appointed to manage your affairs. This foresight not only provides peace of mind but also safeguards your interests and those of your loved ones.

  • Control: An LPA grants you the authority to designate who will make decisions on your behalf, aligning with your preferences and values.

  • Avoiding Disputes: It helps prevent potential family conflicts by clearly outlining your wishes in advance.

  • Effective Management: Ensures your assets and health are managed effectively, even when you are not in a position to do so yourself.

Without an LPA, your family may face lengthy and expensive legal processes, or worse, disputes that can strain relationships and complicate an already difficult situation. Therefore, setting up an LPA is not just about preparing for the unknown; it's about taking control of your future and ensuring your wishes are carried out with dignity and respect.

The Consequences of Not Having an LPA

Failing to establish a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) can leave your loved ones in a precarious position should you lose the ability to manage your affairs. Without an LPA, no individual has the legal right to act on your behalf, leading to potential legal hurdles and emotional distress for your family.

  • Loved ones may need to apply to the Court of Protection to become a deputy, a process that is not only time-consuming but also costly.

  • Disputes may arise over who is best suited to make decisions, potentially resulting in family conflicts and legal battles.

  • The absence of an LPA means a loss of control over who makes crucial decisions about your health, welfare, or finances.

The process of becoming a deputy is not a straightforward one; it involves proving to the court that the proposed deputy is suitable, which can be a daunting task without clear guidance. Moreover, the authority granted to a deputy is often more limited than that given to an attorney under an LPA, which can further complicate matters.

LPAs and Dementia: A Guide for Sufferers and Families

As dementia progresses, it becomes increasingly difficult to manage personal affairs, particularly in the realms of finance and healthcare. Establishing a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) is a proactive step that allows you to appoint a trusted individual to make decisions on your behalf, ensuring that your best interests are always at the forefront.

It's crucial to understand when to hand over power of attorney. The right time to do so is a personal decision, but it should be considered while you still have the mental capacity to make informed choices. The lasting power of attorney for your property and financial affairs means that a designated individual can make decisions on your behalf, which is especially important in the context of dementia.

Without an LPA, your loved ones may face legal disputes over who should make decisions for you, leading to stressful and costly legal battles. To prevent this, here's a simple checklist to guide you through the process:

  • Determine your preferred type of LPA: Health and Welfare or Property and Financial Affairs.

  • Choose a trustworthy attorney who understands your wishes and values.

  • Discuss your decision with family members to ensure transparency.

  • Seek professional advice if you're uncertain about the process.

Remember, it's never too early to plan for the future. Taking steps to set up an LPA can provide peace of mind for you and your family.

Financial Considerations and Costs Associated with LPAs

Understanding the Fees for Setting Up an LPA

When considering setting up a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA), it's important to be aware of the associated costs. The standard fee for registering an LPA with the Office of the Public Guardian (OPG) is £82. This fee is not merely for the registration; it covers the entire processing of your application.

However, there are circumstances under which you may be eligible for a fee reduction or even an exemption:

  • If the donor receives certain means-tested benefits, they may qualify for an exemption from the fee.

  • For those with a low income, a reduced fee may be applicable.

To apply for a reduction or exemption, you must complete the 'fee remissions and exemption form' and provide the necessary proof of eligibility. Remember, if you're applying by post and not paying online, you'll need to include a cheque for the fee with your application.

Navigating the Office of the Public Guardian Fee Refund Scheme

When you've taken the significant step to set up a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA), it's important to be aware of the potential for recovering some of the costs involved. The Office of the Public Guardian (OPG) Fee Refund Scheme is designed to reimburse individuals who may have been charged more than was necessary to process their LPA.

To navigate the refund scheme, you should first ensure that your LPA has been correctly signed and registered. If you discover that you are eligible for a refund, the process involves:

  • Checking the eligibility criteria on the OPG website.

  • Completing the refund claim form with accurate details.

  • Submitting the form and awaiting confirmation from the OPG.

If you require assistance or have queries regarding the refund scheme, the OPG provides support through their helpline at 0300 456 0300 or via email at Taking advantage of this scheme can be a crucial part of your financial planning, ensuring that you are not out of pocket for more than necessary.

Seeking Professional Advice: Costs and Benefits

When considering the establishment of a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA), seeking professional advice can be invaluable. Solicitors specialise in ensuring that your LPA is legally robust, addressing any complexities tailored to your circumstances. While there is a cost associated with professional advice, the benefits often outweigh the expenses.

The costs for professional advice can vary, but here's a general breakdown:

  • Initial consultation: Often free or at a reduced rate

  • LPA drafting and advice: Fixed fee or hourly rate

  • Registration assistance: May be included or separate

Remember, the costs are an investment in your and your family's future. It's crucial to weigh the potential legal risks against the expense of professional services. Ultimately, the decision to seek advice should be based on your personal needs and the complexity of your estate.

Understanding the financial implications and costs associated with Lasting Powers of Attorney (LPAs) is crucial for effective estate planning. At East Sussex Wills, we offer expert guidance to help you navigate these complexities with confidence. Our personalised services ensure that you're making informed decisions that align with your unique circumstances. Don't let uncertainty deter you from securing your future—visit our website for a comprehensive breakdown of LPA-related costs and to schedule a consultation with our experienced team.


In conclusion, understanding the intricacies of Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) in the UK is crucial for ensuring that your wishes are respected and your affairs are managed effectively should you lose mental capacity. This guide has aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of both the health and welfare LPA, as well as the property and financial affairs LPA, highlighting the importance of early preparation and the peace of mind that comes with having an LPA in place. Whether you are considering setting up an LPA for yourself or helping a loved one through the process, remember that it is a choice that empowers your future and safeguards your autonomy. For further assistance, the Office of the Public Guardian and professional legal advisors can offer guidance tailored to your specific needs.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) in the UK?

A Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) is a legal document that allows an individual (the 'donor') to appoint one or more trusted people (the 'attorneys') to make decisions on their behalf in case they lose mental capacity. There are two types of LPA: Health and Welfare LPA, and Property and Financial Affairs LPA.

How do I set up a Lasting Power of Attorney?

To set up an LPA, you can obtain forms and an information pack from the Office of the Public Guardian or use the online service on GOV.UK. After completing the forms, you must register your LPA with the Office of the Public Guardian before it can be used.

What are the responsibilities of an attorney under an LPA?

An attorney under an LPA has the responsibility to make decisions in the best interests of the donor, considering their wishes and preferences. They must act within the legal limits of their powers and cannot benefit personally from their position.

Why is it important to have a Lasting Power of Attorney?

Having an LPA in place is crucial for future planning as it ensures that decisions regarding your health, welfare, finances, and property can be made by someone you trust if you are no longer able to make those decisions yourself.

Can I get a refund for the fees paid to register an LPA?

Yes, you may be eligible for a refund of part of the fee if you paid to register an LPA between certain dates. This is due to a refund scheme by the Office of the Public Guardian. Details and eligibility criteria can be found on their website.

What happens if I don't have a Lasting Power of Attorney in place?

If you lose mental capacity without an LPA in place, someone may need to apply to the Court of Protection to become your deputy, which can be a longer and more expensive process than having an LPA. It's also possible that someone you wouldn't have chosen could be appointed to make decisions on your behalf.



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